However, ~ 2400 (mostly nuclear-coded) proteins are present in the NM, PS, PR, and PPM (Curtis et al. More precise and fuller tomography of phylogenetically diverse chromist PRs is essential to distinguish between these alternatives, which have radically different cell biological and evolutionary implications (Fig. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.protis.2008.06.001, Kodama Y, Fujishima M (2011) Endosymbiosis of Chlorella species to the ciliate Paramecium bursaria alters the distribution of the host’s trichocysts beneath the host cell cortex. Different protist body plans are largely defined by the microtubular (mt) cytoskeleton associated with centrioles (ciliary basal bodies) and the more amorphous non-actin fibrillar proteins linking these to each other and to other cell organelles. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.plipres.2015.10.004, Christensen T (1962) Alger. 5, upper right—perhaps also on the left). In: Rayner ADM, Brasier CM, Moore D (eds) Evolutionary biology of the fungi. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 53:1759–1777, Simpson AGB, Patterson D (1999) The ultrastructure of Carpediemonas membranifera (Eukaryota) with reference to the “excavate hypothesis”. 3C), but ACP-double-labelled controls still showed slight asymmetry in location on one side of the apicoplast (Spork et al.’s 2009 Fig. 2013). J Cell Biol 52:598–614, Sommer MS, Gould SB, Lehmann P, Gruber A, Przyborski JM, Maier UG (2007) Der1-mediated preprotein import into the periplastid compartment of chromalveolates? Oilgae Story Chlorella is postulated to secrete a maltose transporter into the PV membrane, and an inhibitor of lysosomal fusion; if symbiont protein synthesis is blocked, its cells degenerate and lysosomes fuse with PV and digest Chlorella after it ceases to provide maltose (Kodama and Fujishima 2011). That this took place in the last common ancestor of Chromista and that was a photophagotroph not a heterotroph still arouses controversy because some scientists prefer (mistakenly I recently argued; Cavalier-Smith et al. The wrong topology at the base of Heterokonta of the Bodyl et al. Though it appears positionally like R4 of corticates and may attach to the same triplet, the absence of R4 in scotokaryotes and in the cytoskeletally apparently most primitive members of all major corticate lineages leads me to think that roots at this position arose polyphyletically within corticates and within chromists and independent of Eolouka whose positionally equivalent anterior root I is therefore call R4e (Fig. However, I now think that anterior roots (AR) of Eolouka which stem from the posterior edge of C2 are probably not homologous with R3 of Loukozoa (Malawimonas plus Metamonada) and neokaryotes generally which start between its anterior edge and the dorsal fan (if present, as it is in most excavates sensu stricto—i.e. Early chromists retained phagotrophy, remaining naked and repeatedly reverted to heterotrophy by losing chloroplasts. 2002). Algal chromists lost the eukaryotic host fatty acid (FA) synthetase, just as did the ancestor of plants which instead kept cyanobacterial FA synthetase, and evolved FA export from plastid to cytosol. nov. and Acavomonidia nom. over the simple two-kingdom system of plants and animals. 2009), confirming evidence from Hsp90 trees that these four groups are a clade designated Hacrobia (Okamoto et al. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10265-012-0486-6, Matsumoto T et al (2011b) Green-colored plastids in the dinoflagellate genus Lepidodinium are of core chlorophyte origin. Thomas Cavalier-Smith. Chromist motile cells have tinsel-type flagella. Protist 159:591–620, Cavalier-Smith T, Lewis R, Chao EE, Oates B, Bass D (2009) Helkesimastix marina n. sp. Discicristate centrioles perhaps uniquely both have the same orientation (Brugerolle 1992; Brugerolle and Simpson 2004). (2014) depicted without any explanation a radically different model that instead assumes that myzozoan vesicle targeting to the EpM evolved secondarily from euchromist ancestors with PPM already inside the rough ER lumen. In: Green JC, Leadbeater BSC, Diver WL (eds) The chromophyte algae: problems and perspectives. New dinoflagellate subclass Karlodinia got its chloroplasts from haptophytes by tertiary symbiogenesis, but converted them to unique chimaeras with dinoflagellate and haptophyte plastid proteins, retaining haptophyte periplastid-like derlins and cdc48s, yet paradoxically seemingly are bounded by only a two-membrane envelope as in Plantae. Chromalveolata was an eukaryote supergroup present in a major classification of 2005, then regarded as one of the six major groups within the eukaryotes. Apicoplast stromal transit peptidases are targeted by a bipartite sequence (Sheiner and Striepen 2014). | If so, membrane fusion would immediately have made protein targeting more efficient as chloroplast preproteins would now directly enter the ER lumen without vesicular transport; most would immediately bind to the already efficient PPM TP receptor, very few passing onwards to the Golgi with loss to the cell surface. Figs. 2008) are best thought of not as a mutualism, as is usual (Venn et al. 2013) and cholesterol transfer, so its discovery in the diatom PS partially corroborates my theory. PV budding depends on the host recognising the large size of Chlorella compared with bacterial prey that are immediately digested and is probably effected by dynamin (Kodama and Fujishima 2012), which might also mediate later PV divisions. 2), as this free-living biciliate phagotroph has a much simpler cytoskeleton than excavates or discicristates (not attributable to secondary parasitic reduction). Even in the narrowest sense (the heterokonts), chromists include very diverse forms, exhibiting a great variety of trophic mechanisms. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1003335107, Janouškovec J, Tikhonenkov DV, Mikhailov KV, Simdyanov TG, Aleoshin VV, Mylnikov AP, Keeling PJ (2013) Colponemids represent multiple ancient alveolate lineages. The concept of kingdom, as well as of most other taxo-, nomic levels, predates the realization that living organisms, have undergone evolution and that phylogenies can be. n. and Acavomonas peruviana n. gen. n. Symp. These include Sporozoa, six heterotrophic classes grouped with the ancestrally photosynthetic class Peridinea/Dinophyceae (that itself includes many non-photosynthetic lineages) as superclass Dinoflagellata, and the parasitic superclass Perkinsozoa that are sisters of Dinoflagellata (together infraphylum Dinozoa). A globular sporangium, as formed by Pythium acanthicum and P. irregulare among others, is clearly visible. Genome Biol Evol 6:2774–2785. No examples exist of tertiary symbiogenetic plastid transfer to a heterotrophic host, so the karlodinian plastid does not support the idea that the chromist last common ancestor was heterotrophic and Myzozoa, ochrophytes, and haptophytes acquired plastids by tertiary transfers from cryptophytes.
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